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Thursday, November 05, 2009

Indonesian Frogmen Commando / Komando Pasukan Katak

KOPASKA
Active March 31, 1962 - Present
Country Indonesia
Branch Indonesian Navy
Type Naval Special Forces
Role Sea, Air and Land Special Operations/Maritime Counter-Terrorist force
Size Classified
Part of Indonesian National Defense Forces Tentara National Indonesia (Indonesian)
Garrison/HQ Indonesian National Naval Base, Western Fleet Pondok Dayung Tj. Priok Jakarta, Eastern Fleet Ujung Surabaya
Nickname Kopaska
Motto Tan Hana Wighna Tan Sirna
Colors Maroon
March Kopaska March
Mascot Green Flying Frog
Anniversaries 31st March
Engagements Western New Guinea (Papua) - 1950s
Trikora Campaign, Malaysia/Singapore/Borneo - 1962/64 Dwikora Campaign

Kopaska or Komando Pasukan Katak is the premier frogman and underwater demolition unit of the Indonesian Navy. The Unit's motto is "Tan Hana Wighna Tan Sirna" ("There is no obstacle that cannot be defeated"). KOPASKA was officially established on March 31, 1962 by President Sukarno to help his campaign in Western New Guinea. However, this special operations force was actually founded in 1954 by Captain (Navy) Iskak from the Navy Frogman School at Naval Base Surabaya. The Unit's main duties are underwater demolition (raiding enemy ships and bases), destroying main underwater installations, reconnaissance, prisoner snatches, preparing beaches for larger naval amphibious operations, and counter-terrorism. In peacetime the unit deploys a seven person team to serve as security personnel for VIPs. Primary among these duties are the escort and personal security of the Indonesian president and vice president.

History
KOPASKA was heavily influenced by the early U.S. Navy Frogman Underwater Demolition Team (UDTs) and modern Navy SEAL Team.

Early KOPASKA members (Captain-Navy Urip Santoso, Lieutenant-Navy Joko Suyatno, and Sergeant EMP Joseph) trained with the UDTs in the United States. The Indonesian Navy also sent personnel to Russia to learn from Russian Navy Combat Divers and Demolition Team (BA). The tradition of overseas training has continued with a few men from the unit travelling each year to Coronado, California and Norfolk, Virginia to participate in SEAL training. Returning to Indonesia, these men then recruit new personnel for KOPASKA.

Recruitment was difficult in the early years of KOPASKA as only few Navy members could pass the qualifications process. Recruitment became even more difficult when President Sukarno announced the Trikora Campaign in Western New Guinea (the Netherlands New Guinea), as KOPASKA were required to conduct beach reconnaissance, beach clearing, prisoner snatches, and human torpedo missions. The latter two missions were the most daring planned by KOPASKA – the first planned to snatch Rear Admiral Reeser, Commander in Chief of the Dutch Armed Forces in the Territory, and the human torpedo was aimed at the Aircraft Carrier Karel Doorman. Due to lack of personnel KOPASKA had to borrow 21 troops from Army Special Forces ( RPKAD - now KOPASSUS), including Colonel Sarwo Edhie Wibowo, and three from the Army (KODAM JAYA). The plans were canceled when a cease-fire was implemented between Indonesia and the Netherlands.

Of the troops assigned to the Trikora campaign, the three Army troops (Maksum, Alex Sunaryo, and Budi Suroyo) attended Seaman School in the Naval Training Command (Kodikal) and became regular members of KOPASKA. 18 of 21 RPKAD wanted to stay with the Navy, but the Commander of RPKAD (Major General Mung Pahardimulyo) did not approve the transfer. Instead, he accommodated the ex-KOPASKA members by creating a new special unit in KOPASSUS SAT GULTOR 81-2 Batt.

Until now, Kopaska still trained their specialities to other Indonesian Special Forces unit :

1. RPKAD Army Special Forces called KOPASSUS Frogman CT-Team, (now known as Paska GULTOR in unit SAT-81 GULTOR KOPASSUS Cijantung.

2. Peleton Intai Tempur TONTAIPUR KOSTRAD (Army Startegic Command Recconaisance Platoon and CT-Team).

3. Detasemen Bravo DENBRAVO-90 ( AIR FORCE CT-Team ).

KOPASSUS SAT-81 GULTOR and DENBRAVO-90 continues to send its best members for three months of training in Kopaska Frogman Navy School (Sepaskal) at the Special Training Centre (Pusdiksus), Naval Warfare Centre (Pusdikopsla), Naval Training Command (Kodikal) Moro Krembangan in Surabaya, East Java.

Recruitment
The recruitment process to KOPASKA is similar to that of the US Navy SEALs. The criteria are:
Be an existing member of the Navy corps (other corps, including Marines, do not qualify)
Be younger than 30 years old

The recruitment process takes place annually at all Indonesian naval bases, so location is not a concern. Candidates who fulfil the initial criteria are brought to KOPASKA Training Centre to participate in the selection process. Of 300-1500 candidates, only 15 to 20 actually complete the initial selection process. Those who pass the initial selection receive advanced training at KOPASKA training centre. Those who pass training then graduate to become a member of KOPASKA Unit. Only 5-6 people per year graduate to become a full member.

Training
The training process lasts nine months, divided into four continual training phases: physical endurance/physical training, basic underwater training, commando training, and parachute training.

Each phase of training consists of a similar process. For example, the first phase of training is physical or endurance training. Each candidate receives a daily physical training program, e.g.: running, marching, push-ups, sit ups, pull-ups, swimming, etc. The training programs are unscheduled, so the instructor can order physical training at random. The last week of this training each candidate must be able to demonstrate strength through trials such as cross-strait swimming or rowing to Laki Island at night with little food or sleep. This training usually exploits the candidate's physical and psychological strength.

The remaining training phases include combat swimming, infiltration through submarine torpedo tube, long range combat patrol, close quarter battle, infiltration using CRRC or RIB, intelligence course, parachute training (including combat free-fall, static line, HAHO, and HALO), pathfinder, and survival techniques.

First phase
First phase training is physical training or endurance training. Therefore to cope with this phase each candidate every day will receive physical training program, such running, marching, push-up, sit up, pull-up, swimming, etc. All of these training program are unscheduled, therefore it can happen any time the instructor want his candidates to do. The last week of this training each candidate should be able to show their strength already, such as cross strait swimming, rowing to Laki Island at night with little food and without enough sleep, etc. These training usually exploit most of the candidate physical and psychology strength. The remaining training phases are almost similar receive by Indonesia special communities, such as: combat swimming, infiltrate through submarine torpedo tube, Long range combat patrol, Close quarter battle (CQB or CQC), Infiltrate by using CRRC or RIB, Intelligence course, parachute training, consist of combat free-fall, static lime, HAHO, and HALo, Pathfinder, Survival, etc.

Weaponry and equipment
Since most of KOPASKA duties are in salty and moist environments, most of KOPASKA's weapons and equipment reflect these conditions.

The type of equipment and weapons used by Kopaska are common in Indonesia and world special force societies, including:
Pistols: Pindad P1/P2, Sig Sauer P226, Glock 17, Glock 19, H&K USP
Submachineguns:H&K MP5 variants, Micro Uzi, Daewoo K7
Assault rifles: AK-47, Norinco Type 56-2, Colt M16A1 assault rifle, Pindad SS1-V1/V2, Pindad SS2-V1/V2, AK CZ-58, HK416, Steyr Aug A3 SFO, AK-101
Sniper rifles:Sig 550 Sniper rifle, Steyr-Mannlicher SSG 69, Galatz Sniper Rifle, AW L96, Denel NTW-20, Arctic Sniper
Machineguns: Daewoo K3, FN Minimi, FN MAG, GPMG, Pindad 12.7 MG's

KOPASKA use commercial scuba diver equipment. All personnel are also equipped with lightweight PRO-TEC helmets and Level III MICH helmets. They use close circuit and open circuit aqualung equipment, a scooter or sub-skimmer craft for underwater mobility, and an Avon Sea Raider Rigid Inflatable Boat or Hull (By deflating the hull, a Sea Raider can also can be used as a sub-skimmer craft).

Notable missions
Trikora campaign
In this campaign, they were ordered to be human torpedoes just like the Japanese 'kamikaze.' Their Kamikaze strick craft was a boat installed with one MiG-17 "Fresco" ejection seat, powered by a pair of Johnson 100pk and armed with two torpedoes warheads. Known as Project Y within KOPASKA circle, this project was supervised by Major (Navy) Urip Santoso, one of the founders of KOPASKA.

Currently, the unit strength is approximately 300 men, divided into two groups. One group is attached to the western fleet, based in Jakarta, and the other group is attached to the eastern fleet, based in Surabaya, East Java. When called for, they do support search and rescue duties, albeit to a limited extent. They have been deployed overseas as part of United Nations peace keeping missions.


IN BAHASA INDONESIA / DALAM BAHASA INDONESIA

Komando Pasukan Katak
Komando Pasukan Katak atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Kopaska didirikan 31 Maret 1962 oleh Presiden Sukarno untuk mendukung kampanye militer di Irian Jaya.

Kopaska berkekuatan 300 orang. Satu grup di Armada Barat di Jakarta, dan satu grup di Armada Timur di Surabaya. Tugas utama mereka adalah menyerbu kapal dan pangkalan musuh, menghancurkan instalasi bawah air, penyiapan perebutan pantai dan operasi pendaratan kekuatan amfibi.


Sejarah
Komando Pasukan Katak disingkat KOPASKA adalah pasukan khusus dari TNI Angkatan Laut. Semboyan dari korps ini adalah "Tan Hana Wighna Tan Sirna" yang berarti "tak ada rintangan yang tak dapat diatasi". Korps ini secara resmi didirikan pada 31 Maret 1962 oleh Presiden Indonesia waktu itu Soekarno untuk membantunya dalam masalah Irian Jaya. Pasukan khusus ini sebenarnya sudah ada sejak 1954.

Bapak dari Kopaska adalah Kapten Pelaut Iskak dari sekolah pasukan katak angkatan laut di pangkalan angkatan laut Surabaya. Tugas utama dari pasukan ini adalah peledakan/demolisi bawah air termasuk sabotase/penyerangan rahasia kekapal lawan dan sabotase pangkalan musuh, penghancuran instalasi bawah air, pengintaian, mempersiapkan pantai pendaratan untuk operasi amfibi yang lebih besar serta antiteror di laut/maritime counter terorism . Jika tidak sedang ditugaskan dalam suatu operasi, tim tim Detasemen Paska dapat ditugaskan menjadi pengawal pribadi VIP seperti Presiden dan Wakil Presiden Indonesia.

Komando Pasukan Katak TNI-AL
Kopaska - Pengamanan Pantai
Satuan Pasukan Katak Armada Barat (Satpaska Armabar)
Detasemen 1 Sabotase/anti-Sabotase
Detasemen 2 Operasi Khusus
Detasemen 3 Combat SAR
Detasemen 4 EOD dan mine clearence
Detasemen 5 Underwater Demolition
Detasemen 6 Special Boat Unit
Satuan Pasukan Katak Armada Timur (Satpaska Armatim)
Detasemen 1 Sabotase/anti-Sabotase
Detasemen 2 Operasi Khusus
Detasemen 3 Combat SAR
Detasemen 4 EOD dan mine clearence
Detasemen 5 Underwater Demolition
Detasemen 6 Special Boat Unit

Tugas "Manusia Katak"
Kopaska Parade
Tugas dalam Operasi Amphibi
Beach Recconaisance
Post Reconnaisance
Beach Clearing
SUROB (Surf Observation)
Operasi Khusus
Sabotase / Anti Sabotase
Clandestein
Combat SAR
Mine Clearance Ops
Send and Pick up agent
Operasi Tambahan
PAM VIP VVIP & Vital Obj
Underwater Survey
SAR
Underwater Salvage
Factual Information Gathering

Perekrutan

Kopaska - Penyusupan Air
Anggota TNI AL (kecuali Korps Marinir)
Berdinas minimum 2 thn di KRI/Kapal Perang RI
Lulus Kesamaptaan/kemampuan jasmani
Lulus Tes Ketahanan Air
Lulus Psikotest khusus
Lulus Kesehatan khusus bawah air
Secara sadar mengikuti tes dan pendidikan tanpa paksaan siapapun

Lama pendidikan

10 bulan
Tempat pendidikan
Di Sekolah Pasukan Katak TNI AL (SEPASKAL) / Komando Pendidikan Operasi Laut -KODIKOPSLA / Komando Pengembangan Pendidikan TNI AL-KOBANGDIKAL) Ujung Surabaya. Sebelumnya adalah di Sekolah Penyelaman TNI AL (SESELAM) PUSDIKOPSLA KODIKAL Surabaya)

Materi Pendidikan
Akademis umum Angkatan Laut (Operasi laut, navigasi, mesin, elektronika, bangunan kapal,komunikasi dan lain lain)
Kepaskaan (Doktrin Manusia Katak,Penyelaman dasar,penyelaman tempur,renang tempur,kartografi,menembak berbagai jenis senjata, mengemudi dan menangani kapal/perahu cepat dan lain lain)
Dik Komando (Dasar komando, perang hutan, jungle survival/sea survival SERE, dan lain lain, sebelum mempunyai dik sendiri siswa kopaska ikut dengan pendidikan komando hutan Marinir)
Terjun (Static dan AFF). Setelah melaksanakan terjun dasar mendarat di darat selanjutnya adalah spesialisasi kemampuan terjun ( statik & free fall) untuk mendarat di sasaran sasaran lepas pantai dan laut.
Intelijen Tempur
Sabotase dan kontra sabotase
Demolisi bawah air
SAR Tempur
Jumlah personel
Nil - untuk jumlah tidak pernah di ekspos karena pasukan ini mempunyai tingkat kerahasian yang tinggi dalam materi personil.

Kegiatan saat ini
Melaksanakan Operasi khusus/Intelijen TNI dan TNI AL
Melaksanakan Operasi "Kikis Bajak"
Unit Anti Perompak Perairan Indonesia
Buru Perompak di daerah Selat Malaka
Buru Perompak di daerah Selat Sunda
Buru Perompak di daerah Bangka Belitung
Pengamanan Blok Ambalat Ambalat
Pengamanan Objek Vital Lepas Pantai Oil Rig
Latma Malindo Malaysia & Indonesia
Latma PANDU EODEX dgn Republic of Singapore Navy Naval Diving Unit / RSN-NDU secara bergantian Singapura dan Indonesia
Latma MCMEX / DIVEX dengan Tim NAVAL EOD dari 25 negara Asia Pasifik di Asia Pasifik
Latma Flash Iron / SEALEX dengan US NAVY SEAL US Navy
Latma Balance Iron dengan US Army Ranger US Army

Kiprah KOPASKA :
Malaysia
PASKAL, Pasukan Khas Laut Tentara Diraja Malaysia adalah pasukan khusus milik kerajaan malaysia, Pada awal pembentukannya tentara laut diraja malaysia mengirimkan 6 orang tentaranya untuk di didik di Di Sekolah Pasukan Katak TNI AL (SEPASKAL) / Komando Pendidikan Operasi Laut -KODIKOPSLA / Komando Pengembangan Pendidikan TNI AL-KOBANGDIKAL) Ujung surabaya, dari 6 orang tadi ada satu orang yang tidak lulus dan dipulangkan ke negaranya karena mengalami patah kaki pada waktu menjalani pendidikan, setelah 5 orang ini lulus akhirnya PASKAL sampai sekarang memakai baret ungu marinir TNI-AL untuk menghormati bapak didiknya yaitu TNI-AL..

4 comments:

Pakdhe said...

Infonya betul-betul lengkap-kap dan penjelasannya edukatif....
Kalau bisa, ulas juga donk mengenai Detasemen Khusus (Densus) 88 Antiteror...

Mantap gan...!!!

Serba Ada said...

terima kasih..
tunggu saja, ulasan-ulasan dari kami..

droppingzone said...

Maaf, sepertinya di bagian Recruitment, yaitu kalimat :
" All personnel who wish to join the Kopaska unit should be members of the navy corps, as the involvement in other corps is not allowed (this includes the marine corps) ",

seharusnya:
" All personnel who wish to join the Kopaska unit can be from all the navy corps, except the marine corps " agar sesuai dengan tulisan di bagian berbahasa Indonesia ( bagian Perekrutan ) yaitu: " Anggota TNI AL (kecuali Korps Marinir) ".

droppingzone said...

Maaf, sepertinya di bagian Recruitment, yaitu kalimat :
" All personnel who wish to join the Kopaska unit should be members of the navy corps, as the involvement in other corps is not allowed (this includes the marine corps) ",

seharusnya:
" All personnel who wish to join the Kopaska unit can be from all the navy corps, except the marine corps " agar sesuai dengan tulisan di bagian berbahasa Indonesia ( bagian Perekrutan ) yaitu: " Anggota TNI AL (kecuali Korps Marinir) ".